The carbon hydrogen vacuum cleaning machine (also called carburized water cleaner in Japan) is a equipment that uses hydrocarbons to clean the products. This cleaning technology is developed in Japan. As hydrocarbons do not contain substance ODS, there is no damage to the ozone layer in the atmosphere, so it is welcomed by environmental protection departments and users in environmental protection. Hydrogen compounds have certain characteristics, so there are certain requirements for the design and manufacture of cleaning equipment.
This article is based on the technical data of the technical exchange of the Japan Cleaning Technology Association and the China cleansing Association on the introduction of carbon hydrogen cleaning agents, combined with the cooperation between the company and the Japanese cleaning equipment manufacturer, and the accumulated experience in the manufacturing of the equipment. When the hydrocarbon cleaning machine is gradually accepted in China, it is with the same industry and the same industry. Users exchange experience and promote the technology of hydrocarbon cleaning, so as to achieve a reasonable substitute for cleaning machine containing ODS substance.
The excellent cleaning agents, CFC-113 (Freon) and 1.1.1- three chloroethane (ethane), which have been widely used in the cleaning industry, have been completely banned from production and import. At present, the commonly used chlorine cleaning agents (three chloroethane, trichloroethylene, dichloromethane, etc.), water system cleaning agent and hydrocarbon cleaning agent are used in the face of most users, because the chlorine containing cleaning agent can be used slightly by modifying the original equipment. For a period of time, the chlorine - containing cleaning agent was used.
However, as the chlorine cleaning agent is toxic, the environmental control is very strict, and because of the ISO14000 series of chlorine containing detergent requirements, enterprises in order to obtain the ISO14000 certificate, now began to use the hydrocarbon cleaning agent and water cleaning agent. The equipment of water system cleaning agent has high investment cost and is not easy to dry. After cleaning, the products often have rust spots and spots. The water drainage problem and the lack of water resources in China are also considered. Now the manufacturers have gradually begun to study their alternatives.
On the other hand, the use of non aqueous detergent requires separate consideration of flammability and non flammability. Hydrocarbon systems are combustible, and are less dry than chlorine containing detergents. However, these aspects have been gradually compensated for cleaning equipment, thus predicting hydrocarbon cleaning agents will gradually become the mainstream of today's alternative cleaning agents. Therefore, this article introduces the hydrocarbon cleaning agent and equipment.
1. Hydrocarbon cleaning agent
1, the type of hydrocarbon cleaning agent
The retention solvents obtained by distilled crude oil are called petroleum system, petroleum system hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon compound, hydrocarbon (hydrocarbon), and industrial gasoline, and its definition is still not clear to date. Hydrocarbons, as the name suggests, consist of only two elements. The light oil distilled from crude oil has been used as a cleaning agent directly. It is not used because of its odor, ignition and drying.
Most of the hydrocarbon cleaning agents currently used are not crude distillation products but synthetic products or advanced refined products. Hydrocarbon cleaning agents can be divided into four types: normal hydrocarbon system, heterogeneous hydrocarbon system, naphthenic hydrocarbon and aromatic hydrocarbon from their chemical structure.
Paraffin: structural formula of saturated hydrocarbons CnH2n+1. The stability of straight chain is good, smell small. The light fraction of a molecular sieve extraction distillation, boiling point adjustment. There is also a single component of the substance.
Heterogeneous hydrocarbon: structure for hydrocarbons CnH2n+2. Compared with straight chain hydrocarbons, isomerization hydrocarbon has branched chain, and its safety is good and its odor is small. Most of them are synthetic.
Cyclanic: structure for hydrocarbons CnH2n. Different carbon atoms can have simple cyclic alkanes, such as naphthenic hydrocarbons with side chains. Look from the structure than the solubility of hydrocarbons, but stability, little odor. Crude oil containing naphthenic hydrocarbons is usually distilled or nuclear water is added to aromatic systems.
Aromatic hydrocarbons: benzene ring, strong solubility, because it is worried that its toxicity is now less widely used.
Two. Cleaning principle of hydrocarbon cleaning agent
1. Mechanism of cleaning
The cleaning principle of non aqueous detergent is simply based on the solvent's solvent. The mechanism of degreasing is based on the principle of similarity and solubility. Hydrocarbons such as gasoline, light oil and so on are easy to dissolve heavy oil, and other hydrocarbons are easily dissolved with similar halogenated hydrocarbons (carbon tetrachloride, three chloroethane, etc.). It is also based on the mutual solubility of water and compounds similar to OH, such as R-COOH (lower fatty acids) and R-OH (lower alcohols). The solubility of xenogenic liquids is closely related to surface tension and interfacial tension. For example, the surface tension of solvents such as benzene and naphthenic hydrocarbon has little difference from the surface tension of tar and lubricating oil. The interfacial tension between them is almost easy to be mutually soluble. For the solubility of the solvent for oil or oily contaminants, the higher the solute separation temperature is, the greater the solubility of the solute to the solute during the cooling process at a certain temperature at different solvents.
2, KB value
The value of KB is the value of the paint and coating industry, such as the dissolution of the water, which means the ML number of the diluent needed to precipitate kaurigum from the 120g standard kaurigum- butanol solution at 25 C, and the higher the KB value, the better the solubility. The discrimination of solvent dissolving force used as cleaning used KB value as an indicator, but the KB value refers to the solubility of the resin, which is not directly related to the cleaning force and therefore is difficult to be used as a reference.
3, SP value
The solubility parameters of cleaning solvents include solubility parameter SP. The SP value is expressed in the following form:
SP value: delta = Delta (delta E/V) E: V: molar volume of evaporation
The substances with similar SP value have similar agglutination energy, so they are easy to dissolve each other. This phenomenon is the empirical rule of similar phase. The SP value of each material is shown in the other page. The SP value of the general hydrocarbon cleaning agent is 7~8. This value is consistent with the SP value (7~8) of the processing oil, so it is easy to dissolve and has high cleaning power. But it is far away from the SP value of the resin, so it is not easy to erode these materials. At the same time, for the resin containing dirt, the solubility of alcohol is poor, and the cleaning effect is not good. When the cleaning agent is selected, the SP value can be used as an indicator, but only with the value of the value as a judge of the danger, it is necessary to use the actual contaminated oil as a cleaning performance test to evaluate.
4. Physical nature
The factors affecting the cleaning force are influenced by the physical forces such as heat, agitation, friction, pressure, pressure relief, grinding, ultrasonic and other physical forces, except the solvent dissolving force. Not only consider one factor, but consider all factors in order to improve the cleaning effect. Table 2 is a summary of factors affecting the cleaning capacity.
Three. Factors affecting the cleaning capacity of hydrocarbon cleaning agent
Chemical force: dissolving force... Interfacial tension... The chemical reaction force of the surfactant (auxiliary).
Physical force: heating... Promote the reaction of other cleaning factors, the physical changes of the dirt, and the physical properties of the cleaned objects. Ultrasonic wave... The cavitation, acceleration, and direct flow caused by ultrasound are strong stripping and dispersion. Stir... In order to promote the mixing of the contact between the cleaned surface and the fresh cleaning liquid, the dirt after the homogenization is made into the cleaning liquid to prevent the reattachment of the cleaning surface, because of the homogenization (shaking, improving the cleaning effect, the mechanical promotion of the stripping of the cleaned surface dirt, and the dispersed peeling off). Decompression... Soak the decompression fluid to the fine parts, so that the dirt expands and removes. According to the factors affecting the cleaning force above, the design and configuration of the hydrocarbon cleaning equipment should be targeted, for example, the configuration of the main functional grooves for cleaning is usually as follows:
Work principle: first stage: first, the operator will wash the product into the basket, then put the basket into the equipment area, the operator controls the manipulator to wash the basket to clean the main tank. At this time the cylinder drive groove cover automatically closes the cleaning tank, the vacuum degassing system starts, and the air is pumped out in the slot. In the vacuum state, the gas in the narrow gap and the gas in the cleaning agent can be pumped out in the vacuum state. The ultrasonic start, the swing device start, and the washing basket turn, so that the cleaning agent can be fully entered. After the set time, the vacuum release, the cylinder drive will open the cover, the manipulator will put the basket forward and enter the second slot cleaning. As for the vacuum cleaning of several grooves, it is determined according to the oil pollution, impurities and the production of the products on the surface of the product.
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